Graphical User Interface : GUI

Computer graphics is an integral part of every day computing. Nowhere is this fact more evident than the modern computer interface design. Graphical elements such as windows, cursors, menus, and icons are so common place it is difficult to imagine computing without them. Once graphics programming was considered a speciality. Today, nearly all professional programmers must have an understanding of graphics in order to accept input and present output to users.

GUI Time Line

A Summary of Principles for User-Interface Design.

A bit of controversy : Microsoft, Apple and Xerox

From... the first operational Alto computer completed at Xerox PARC in 1973.

To ... January 5, 2000 :  Apple announces Aqua, the new look for their upcoming MacOS X client

And then Java and Swing