Non-regular update packet transmission

The source host can model the prediction algorithm being used by the remote host.

The host only needs to transmit updates when there is a significant divergence between the object’s actual position and the remote host’s predicted position.

Only transmit an update when an error threshold is reached or after a timeout period (heartbeat).

Entities must have a “heartbeat” otherwise cannot distinguish between live entities and ones that have left the system.

U.S. Army’s SIMNET, the DIS standard, NPSNET, PARADISE.