Slide 1 : 1/26 : From New Media to The Web (index.en.html)
From New Media to The Web
Slide 2 : ToC : Introduction to NewMedia (tableOfContent.en.html)
Slide 3 : 3/26 : New Media and Web (intro.en.html)
Slide 4 : 4/26 : NewMedia History : is it that new (1) ? (history1.en.html)
Cro Magnon Caves : <15,000 B.C.>
Representation of animal figures
A magic theater of the senses
In the beginning, even before Wagner, life was created and it was multi-sensory
By 15,000 B.C. Cro Magnon had evolved with a brain capable of modern intelligence. With this new intelligence the first art was created deep in subterranean caves in the Dordogne region of Southern France, in caves such as Lascaux, where Cro Magnon marked the birth of the aesthetic with the representation of animal figures and coded shamanist scrawls.
He painted fantastic murals of reindeer, bison,
and bulls in these resonant caverns that flickered with stone candles
and smelled of the acrid aroma of animal fat where rituals were performed.
Source : http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Cave.html
Slide 5 : 5/26 : NewMedia History : is it that new (2) ? (history2.en.html)
Richard Wagner | Total Artwork <1849>
"The future of music, music theater, and all the arts, lay in an embrace of Gesamtkunstwerk or total artwork, a fusion of the arts that had not been attempted on this scale since the classic Greeks."
German opera composer Richard Wagner believed that the future of music, music theater, and all the arts, lay in an embrace of Gesamtkunstwerk or total artwork, a fusion of the arts that had not been attempted on this scale since the classic Greeks. In 1849, Wagner wrote the essay, The Art-work of the Future, defining the synthesis of the arts in which opera served as a vehicle for the unification of all the arts into a single medium of artistic expression.
The Festpielhaus (Festival House) Theater
The Festpielhaus (Festival House) Theater opened in 1876 in Bayreuth, Germany, where Wagner applied his theatrical innovations including: darkening the house, surround-sound reverberance, and the revitalization of the Greek amphitheatrical seating to focus audience attention on stage. This approach to opera foreshadowed the experience of virtual reality, immersing the audience in the imaginary world of the stage.
Source : http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Wagner.html
Slide 6 : 6/26 : NewMedia History : is it that new (3) ? (history3.en.html)
Vannevar Bush | Memex <1945>
Chief scientific advisor to Franklin Roosevelt and director of the government's Office of Scientific Research and Development
Memex, the prototypical hypermedia machine
Essay: "As We May Think"
How information would be gathered, stored, and accessed in an increasingly information-saturated world
"He [mankind] has built a civilization so complex that he needs to mechanize his records more fully if he is to push his experiment to its logical conclusion and not merely become bogged down part way there by overtaxing his limited memory."
Vannevar Bush rose to prominence during World War II as chief scientific advisor to Franklin Roosevelt and director of the government's Office of Scientific Research and Development, where he supervised the research that led to the creation of the atomic bomb and other military technologies. His contribution to the evolution of the computer ranges far and wide: from the invention in 1930 of the Differential Analyzer, one of the first automatic electronic computers, to his concept of the Memex, the prototypical hypermedia machine.
In 1945 the Atlantic Monthly invited Bush to contribute an article on this theme, and the result was the landmark essay, As We May Think. He used this high profile forum to propose a solution to what he considered the paramount challenge of the day: how information would be gathered, stored, and accessed in an increasingly information-saturated world. This article had a profound influence on the scientists and theorists responsible for the evolution of the personal computer and the Internet.
Source : http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Bush.html
Slide 7 : 7/26 : NewMedia History : is it that new (4) ? (history4.en.html)
oNLine System (NLS) demonstration at the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference
Engelbart and team working with networked NLS computers
Douglas Engelbart | Augmentation <1968>
"Our goal of augmenting the human intellect will exhibit more of what can be called intelligence than an unaided human could by organizing his intellectual capabilities into higher levels of synergistic structuring."
Invented mouse, windows, e-mail, and the word processor.
Led one of the most important projects funded by ARPA in the 1960s: a networked environment designed to support collaborative interaction between people using computers => NLS
Douglas Engelbart is one of the most influential thinkers in the history of personal computing. He is best known as the groundbreaking engineer who invented such mainstays of the personal computer as the mouse, windows, e-mail, and the word processor. Engelbart led one of the most important projects funded by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) in the 1960s: a networked environment designed to support collaborative interaction between people using computers. It was dubbed the NLS (oNLine System). This historic prototype, developed at the Stanford Research Institute, and unveiled in 1968 at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco, influenced the development of the first personal computer and the graphical user interface at Xerox PARC in the early 1970s.
Engelbart reasoned that networked computing would not only make individuals more intellectually effective; it would enable a collaborative method of sharing knowledge. The linking of people and computers using this approach to interactivity would result in the use of computers to "solve the world's problems" by augmenting the capacities of the mind's intellectual faculties.
Douglas Engelbart expanded on Bush's premise. His quest to "augment human intelligence," as he aptly phrased it, was based on the insight that the open flow of ideas and information between collaborators was as important to creativity as private free association. The personal computer, as he envisioned it, would not only allow for the arrangement of data in idiosyncratic, non-linear formats. By connecting workstations to a data-sharing network and turning them into communications devices, Engelbart's oNLine System allowed for a qualitative leap in the collaboration between individuals -- almost as if colleagues could peer into one another's minds as part of the creative process. In the early 1960s, experiments with networked personal computing promised the non-linear organization of information on a grand scale.
Source : http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Engelbart.html
Slide 8 : 8/26 : NewMedia History : Ted Nelson (5) (history5.en.html)
Hypertext diagram from Ted Nelson's Literary Machines
Ted Nelson | Hypertext <1963>
Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem Xanadu, "a magic place of literary memory,"
1963 : the words "hyperlink", "hypertext" and "hypermedia"
Xanadu : a system of non-sequential writing
"the structures of ideas are not sequential."
NB. Is it such a good idea ?
As a graduate student in philosophy in the late1950s and early 1960s, Ted Nelson had two critical intellectual encounters that led him to become one of the most influential figures in computing. One was with Vannevar Bush's article As We May Think, which convinced him that emerging information technologies could extend the power of human memory. The second was with Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem Xanadu, "a magic place of literary memory," in Nelson's words, that provided him with the image of a vast storehouse of memories, and which served as the inspiration for his life's work. From these influences, Nelson began his quest to build creative tools that would transform the way we read and write, and in 1963 he coined the words "hypertext" and "hypermedia" to describe the new paradigms that these tools would make possible.
Nelson was particularly concerned with the complex nature of the creative impulse, and he saw the computer as the tool that would make explicit the interdependence of ideas, drawing out connections between literature, art, music and science, since, as he put it, everything is "deeply intertwingled."
Nelson's critical breakthrough was to call for a system of non-sequential writing that would allow the reader to aggregate meaning in snippets, in the order of his or her choosing, rather than according to a pre-established structure fixed by the author.
Working outside of the academic and commercial establishments, following his own strongly held convictions, Nelson devised an elaborate system for the sharing of information across computer networks. Called Xanadu, this system would maximize a computer's creative potential. Central to Nelson's approach was the "hyperlink," a term he coined in 1963, inspired by Bush's notion of the Memex's associative trails. Hyperlinks, he proposed, could connect discrete texts in non-linear sequences. Using hyperlinks, Nelson realized, writers could create "hypertexts," which he described as "non-sequential writing" that let the reader make decisions about how the text could be read in other than linear fashion. As he observed in his landmark book from 1974, Computer Lib/Dream Machines, "the structures of ideas are not sequential." With hypertext, and its multimedia counterpart, "hypermedia," writers and artists could create works that encouraged the user to leap from one idea to the next in a series of provocative juxtapositions that presented alternatives to conventional hierarchies.
Source : http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Nelson.html
Slide 9 : 9/26 : NewMedia History : Bill Atkinson (6) (history6.en.html)
A screen shot of a HyperCard stack in development
Bill Atkinson : HyperCard <1987>
The first accessible hypermedia system
Freely available on all Macs
A huge success (learning material, game, inventory systems etc)
Lighting system for the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia !
Usual Apple mistake : proprietary
HyperCard was created by Bill Atkinson and initially released in 1987, with the understanding that Atkinson would give HyperCard to Apple only if they promised to release it for free on all Macs (an agreement that, according to Atkinson, ran out when the largely-rewritten HyperCard 2.0 hit the shelves).
Because it can be used to create custom applications in
minutes, HyperCard is still used by many academic researchers and small businesses.
Some companies run HyperCard applications -- that were written years ago on
a Mac Plus -- on the latest dual-processor G4 PowerMacs.
Renault, the French auto giant, reportedly uses HyperCard for its inventory system. The software runs part of the lighting system for the tallest buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
HyperCard is used widely in schools to teach programming concepts and for creating interactive learning materials or class reports.
Source : Wired : http://www.wired.com/news/mac/0,2125,54365,00.html
HyperCard is based on the concept of a "stack"
of virtual "cards". Each card includes fields that store data, and
the pattern for each card (its layout, as opposed to the data in the layout)
is known as the "background". Backgrounds could include pictures (its
original purpose, "background picture"), picture fields, buttons,
text, text fields (editors) and other common GUI elements, which would then
be copied onto new cards.
Users can construct databases by opening the Background editor and drawing items onto it to hold the various pieces of data. For instance, an address book could be easily built up by adding a few text fields to hold the name and address. Once completed, the user simply adds a new card (by typing command-n) and types into the fields. The background could be modified at any time, allowing changes to be made with ease – something traditional systems are very bad at. Basic operations such as search, add and delete were built into the HyperCard environment, allowing simple databases to be set up and used by anyone able to use the Apple Macintosh computer.
Scripting in the HyperTalk language allowed the system to be easily modified and extended. Unlike most programming languages, even those that claim to be easy to use, HyperTalk really was easy to use. Allowable syntax included all sorts of versions of the same statement, all in readable English, to avoid forcing the user to write their programs in a particular format.
Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HyperCard
Slide 10 : 10/26 : NewMedia History : Tim Berners (7) (history7.en.html)
CERN laboratory, Geneva, Switzerland
Tim Berners-Lee | World Wide Web <1989>
"An important part is the integration of a hypertext
system with existing data, so as to provide a universal system, and to
In 1989 Tim Berners-Lee, a young British engineer working at CERN, the particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, circulated a proposal for an in-house on-line document sharing system which he described modestly as "a 'web' of notes with links." After getting a grudging go-ahead from his superiors, Berners-Lee dubbed this system the World Wide Web. The Web, as he designed it, combined the communications language of the Internet with Nelson's hypertext and hypermedia, enabling links between files to extend across a global network. It became possible to link every document, sound file or graphic on the Web in an infinite variety of non-linear paths through the network. And instead of being created by a single author, links could be written by anyone participating in the system. Not only did the open nature of the Web lend itself to a wide array of interactive, multimedia experiences, but by hewing to a non-hierarchical structure and open protocols, Berners-Lee's invention became enormously popular, and led to an explosion in the creation of multimedia. By 1993 the Web had truly become an international phenomenon.
Source : http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/BernersLee.html
Slide 11 : 11/26 : NewMedia History : is it that new ? (historySummary.en.html)
http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/overture/looking.html and http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/timeline.html
Slide 12 : 12/26 : Hypertext (hypertexte.en.html)
A hypertext document is one that includes links (connections)
to other documents. In concept this is similar to including footnotes in a printed
document. However, in a hypertext document you can switch to the connected item
by clicking on a "hot spot," usually indicated by a different color
from the surrounding text. In the World Wide Web links can lead to other documents
on the same data server, or might take you to other servers.
A collection of documents (or nodes) containing cross-references
or links which, with the aid of an interactive browser program, let the reader
move easily from one document to another.
Slide 13 : 13/26 : HyperMedia (hypermedia.en.html)
Hypermedia, a term derived from hypertext, extends the
notion of the hypertext link to include links among any set of multimedia objects,
including sound, motion video, and virtual reality.
An extension of hypertext that includes graphics, sound,
video and other kinds of data.
Growing out of hypertext, this is much the same thing,
but in a multimedia environment, whereby the links may also be in the form of
pictures or even of animation or video. The Web is, increasingly, becoming a
hypermedia environment rather than merely hypertext.
Slide 14 : 14/26 : NewMedia (newMedia.en.html)
A Multimedia / NewMedia system is a system that is interactive and uses more than one medium in an integrated way. The media are rich media and are stored media
Slide 15 : 15/26 : Interactive (interactive.en.html)
Really always as a result of an user action
The user can interact with the system and through that interaction influence the behavior of the system
Slide 16 : 16/26 : Integration (integration.en.html)
Mosaic ! or any of its descendants
(any web browser, or Hypercard, or the stuff produce by shockwave)
Everything is digital
Sensorama (is not NewMedia)
N.B.: "A multimedia PC"
In the 1950's it occurred to cinematographer Morton Heilig
that all the sensory splendor of life could be simulated with "reality
machines." He proposed that an artist's expressive powers would be enhanced
by a scientific understanding of the senses and perception. His premise was
simple but striking for its time: if an artist controlled the multi-sensory
stimulation of the audience, he could provide them with the illusion and sensation
of first-person experience, of actually "being there."
Inspired by short-lived curiosities such as Cinerama and 3D movies, it occurred to Heilig that a logical extension of cinema would be to immerse the audience in a fabricated world that engaged all the senses. He believed that by expanding cinema to involve not only sight and sound, but also taste, touch, and smell, the traditional fourth wall of film and theater would dissolve, transporting the audience into a habitable, virtual world. He called this cinema of the future "experience theater," constructing a quirky, nickelodeon-style arcade machine in 1962 he aptly dubbed Sensorama, that catapulted viewers into multi-sensory excursions through the streets of Brooklyn, as well as other adventures in surrogate travel.
Slide 17 : 17/26 : Rich Media (richMedia.en.html)
This is a black & white text
This is a colour text with different fonts
1995 / 4.7 MB / 28 ' 240x180
2004 / 24 MB / 1min 640x346
Slide 18 : 18/26 : Stored Media (storedMedia.en.html)
Slide 19 : 19/26 : Interaction Design (interactionDesign.en.html)
video cassette recorder
Slide 20 : 20/26 : Some examples (usabilityExamples.en.html)
You click on the "Start" button !
You drag and drop it in the trash
Slide 21 : 21/26 : Ergonomics (ergonomics.en.html)
Example height of the working space to allow both men and women to wash the dishes
What people expect, how they organise their work
How to deal with the mood, the colour of the background etc
Slide 22 : 22/26 : Some element of Design for NewMedia (design4NewMedia.en.html)
Slide 23 : 23/26 : Why bother (1) (whyBother.en.html)
Slide 24 : 24/26 : Why bother (2) (whyBother2.en.html)
Slide 25 : 25/26 : NewMedia Design - its past (interacDesignPast.en.html)
Slide 26 : ToC : Introduction to NewMedia (tableOfContent.en.html)